What Causes Down Syndrome? Types and Symptoms of Down Syndrome?

What causes Down syndrome
What causes Down syndrome

What causes Down syndrome?, Types and Symptoms: Down syndrome is the disease of the physical and mental disorder developed by a gene problem that happens before birth. Children who have Down syndrome have certain abnormal features, such as a flat face and a short neck. They also have some kind of intellectual disability. This varies from person to person. But in most cases, it is generally mild to moderate. In this article, we will explain What causes Down syndrome

Down syndrome, unfortunately, cannot be cured, it is a lifetime disorder. But with proper care and medical support, children who have Down syndrome can grow up to have healthy, happy, productive lives.

What Causes Down Syndrome?

What causes Down syndrome

Down syndrome is related to a problem of the chromosomes of a baby. In natural condition, a person has 46 chromosomes. But most people with Down syndrome have 47 chromosomes. In rare cases, other chromosome problems cause Down syndrome. Extra or abnormal chromosomes changes the formation of the baby’s brain and body development.

Risk of Down syndrome is higher of a baby if:

  • The mother is older at the time of pregnancy. Generally, if a mother is above 35 years, she has a risk to give birth to a baby with Down syndrome.
  • If the mother has already children having Down syndrome.
  • If the brothers and sisters of a mother are having Down syndrome.

Types of Down syndrome:

What causes Down syndrome


It is the most common form of Down syndrome where there is an extra copy of chromosome 21 in each cell.


When a baby is born with an extra chromosome 21 in some of their cells but not in all of their cells. This is known as mosaicism.


When the children born with an extra copy chromosome 21, it is known as translocation. There are 46 chromosomes in total but one of them is attached to chromosome 21.

What are the symptoms of Down syndrome?

Most children with Down syndrome have:

  • Flat facial features
  • Small head and ears
  • Short neck
  • Bulging tongue
  • Eyes that slant upward
  • Typically shaped ears
  • Poor muscle tone
  • Below-average intelligence.

It has been found that many of the children having Down syndrome have the problems of heart, intestine, ear or breathing.

There may be some medical complications arising from Down syndrome. They are as follows:

What causes Down syndrome

  1. Congenital heart defects.
  2. Hearing loss.
  3. Poor vision.
  4. Cataracts.
  5. Hip problems, such as dislocations.
  6. Leukemia.
  7. Chronic constipation.
  8. Sleep apnea (interrupted breathing during sleep).
  9. Dementia (thought and memory problems).
  10. Hypothyroidism (low thyroid function).
  11. Obesity.
  12. Late tooth growth, causing problems with chewing.
  13. Alzheimer’s disease later in life.

Those who have Down syndrome are easily affected by infections due to virus or bacteria.

Those who are affected by Down syndrome usually have some kind of developmental disability, but it is generally mild to medium. Mental and social development delays may mean that the child could have:

  • Impulsive behavior.
  • Poor judgment.
  • Short attention span.
  • Slow learning capabilities.


Those babies are born with Down syndrome they have to face some social problems also. Though modern facilities are available now there is a chance of low lifespan of these children.

So, these are the points as mentioned above What causes Down syndrome?.


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