Skin cancer causes Skin cancer is actually cancer arising from skin or it can be defined as common and locally malignant growth of the skin. It is because of development of abnormal cells which gain the ability to multiply and invade in other parts of the body, i.e. develop metastasis and become life-threatening. In this article, we will explain skin cancer causes, symptoms, Prevention and Treatment.
There are two main categories of skin cancer: Non – melanoma skin cancer and melanomas. Non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) includes in itself:- basal cell skin cancer and squamous cell skin cancer, but they are less commonly found than melanomas.
Basal cell skin cancer grows slowly and gradually and does not spread to other organs or parts, i.e. they damage the tissue around it. It is observed as painless, shiny, raised area of the skin with small blood vessels running over it or ulceration.
Squamous cell skin cancer originates from the skin cells and can spread to different parts of the body. It is presented as a hard lump with the scaly top of the skin.
Melanomas are most aggressive and dangerous out of all. They have the ability to spread. It can develop from a mole that has changed its shape, color, size or has irregular edges. It can have more than one color also and it feels itchy or even bleeds in that area.
Main risk factors are:- people with light skin tone are at more risk as well as with low immune function of the body or immunosuppressive drugs and in those who suffer from HIV / AIDS.
Skin Cancer Causes
skin cancer causes More than 90% is because of ultraviolet radiations of the sun. Tanning beds are the source to these UV radiations. Even skin cancer can develop from moles.
Smoking tobacco, HPV infections and other ionizing radiations like X-ray or chronic non- healing wounds or DNA mutations in basaloid cells in the upper layer of the skin are also the causes of skin cancer.
Signs and Symptoms
There are changes in the skin which do not heal, ulceration of the skin, the skin may be discolored from various shades of reddish- brown to black, any change or enlargement of the existing moles. The main sign of squamous cell skin cancer is firm, hard nodules and dome-shaped like keratoacanthomas. Crusting, ulceration, and bleeding may also occur in every type of skin cancer.
Mechanism and Pathophysiology
Tumor or malignant cells destroy the basement membrane of the skin and in turn forms the compact mass or sheets which further invade the connective tissue of the dermis.
These tumor cells may transform into keratinized squamous cells and form round nodules with central concentric and laminated layers called “keratinous pearls” at the center and it is surrounded by lymphocytes.
the main diagnostic method for skin cancer is skin or tissue biopsy.
The exposure to the UV radiations should be decreased and use of sunscreen should be increased. Always wear protective clothing, sunglasses, and hats to avoid exposure to sunlight during the time of peak exposure. Also, avoid the use of tobacco products.
It depends on the location and type of cancer, the age of the person. Further, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, cryotherapy are also effective. Medications like 5 floor- uracil or may include biologic immunotherapy agents like ipilimumab, nivolumab; BRAF inhibitors like vemurafenib, dabrafenib, and MEK inhibitors are also used.
So, these are the above-mentioned Skin Cancer Causes, Symptoms and Treatment.